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Thomas’ Calculus helps students reach the level of mathematical proficiency and maturity you require, but with support for students who need it through its balance of clear and intuitive explanations, current applications, and generalized concepts. In the 14th Edition, numerous features were added to help students better comprehend calculus concepts.

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## ABOUT **Thomas calculus 14th edition answers pdf **

*For three-semester or four-quarter courses in Calculus for students majoring in mathematics, engineering, or science*

**Clarity and precision**

** Thomas’ Calculus** helps students reach the level of mathematical proficiency and maturity you require, but with support for students who need it through its balance of clear and intuitive explanations, current applications, and generalized concepts. In the

**14th Edition**, new co-author Christopher Heil (Georgia Institute of Technology) partners with author Joel Hass to preserve what is best about Thomas’ time-tested text while reconsidering every word and every piece of art with today’s students in mind. The result is a text that goes beyond memorizing formulas and routine procedures to help students generalize key concepts and develop deeper understanding.

## TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Functions

1.1 Functions and Their Graphs

1.2 Combining Functions; Shifting and Scaling Graphs

1.3 Trigonometric Functions

1.4 Graphing with Software

2. Limits and Continuity

2.1 Rates of Change and Tangent Lines to Curves

2.2 Limit of a Function and Limit Laws

2.3 The Precise Definition of a Limit

2.4 One-Sided Limits

2.5 Continuity

2.6 Limits Involving Infinity; Asymptotes of Graphs

3. Derivatives

3.1 Tangent Lines and the Derivative at a Point

3.2 The Derivative as a Function

3.3 Differentiation Rules

3.4 The Derivative as a Rate of Change

3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

3.6 The Chain Rule

3.7 Implicit Differentiation

3.8 Related Rates

3.9 Linearization and Differentials

4. Applications of Derivatives

4.1 Extreme Values of Functions on Closed Intervals

4.2 The Mean Value Theorem

4.3 Monotonic Functions and the First Derivative Test

4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching

4.5 Applied Optimization

4.6 Newton’s Method

4.7 Antiderivatives

5. Integrals

5.1 Area and Estimating with Finite Sums

5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums

5.3 The Definite Integral

5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

5.5 Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Method

5.6 Definite Integral Substitutions and the Area Between Curves

6. Applications of Definite Integrals

6.1 Volumes Using Cross-Sections

6.2 Volumes Using Cylindrical Shells

6.3 Arc Length

6.4 Areas of Surfaces of Revolution

6.5 Work and Fluid Forces

6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass

7. Transcendental Functions

7.1 Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives

7.2 Natural Logarithms

7.3 Exponential Functions

7.4 Exponential Change and Separable Differential Equations

7.5 Indeterminate Forms and L’Hôpital’s Rule

7.6 Inverse Trigonometric Functions

7.7 Hyperbolic Functions

7.8 Relative Rates of Growth

8. Techniques of Integration

8.1 Using Basic Integration Formulas

8.2 Integration by Parts

8.3 Trigonometric Integrals

8.4 Trigonometric Substitutions

8.5 Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

8.6 Integral Tables and Computer Algebra Systems

8.7 Numerical Integration

8.8 Improper Integrals

8.9 Probability

9. First-Order Differential Equations

9.1 Solutions, Slope Fields, and Euler’s Method

9.2 First-Order Linear Equations

9.3 Applications

9.4 Graphical Solutions of Autonomous Equations

9.5 Systems of Equations and Phase Planes

10. Infinite Sequences and Series

10.1 Sequences

10.2 Infinite Series

10.3 The Integral Test

10.4 Comparison Tests

10.5 Absolute Convergence; The Ratio and Root Tests

10.6 Alternating Series and Conditional Convergence

10.7 Power Series

10.8 Taylor and Maclaurin Series

10.9 Convergence of Taylor Series

10.10 Applications of Taylor Series

11. Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates

11.1 Parametrizations of Plane Curves

11.2 Calculus with Parametric Curves

11.3 Polar Coordinates

11.4 Graphing Polar Coordinate Equations

11.5 Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

11.6 Conic Sections

11.7 Conics in Polar Coordinates

12. Vectors and the Geometry of Space

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

12.2 Vectors

12.3 The Dot Product

12.4 The Cross Product

12.5 Lines and Planes in Space

12.6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces

13. Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

13.1 Curves in Space and Their Tangents

13.2 Integrals of Vector Functions; Projectile Motion

13.3 Arc Length in Space

13.4 Curvature and Normal Vectors of a Curve

13.5 Tangential and Normal Components of Acceleration

13.6 Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates

14. Partial Derivatives

14.1 Functions of Several Variables

14.2 Limits and Continuity in Higher Dimensions

14.3 Partial Derivatives

14.4 The Chain Rule

14.5 Directional Derivatives and Gradient Vectors

14.6 Tangent Planes and Differentials

14.7 Extreme Values and Saddle Points

14.8 Lagrange Multipliers

14.9 Taylor’s Formula for Two Variables

14.10 Partial Derivatives with Constrained Variables

15. Multiple Integrals

15.1 Double and Iterated Integrals over Rectangles

15.2 Double Integrals over General Regions

15.3 Area by Double Integration

15.4 Double Integrals in Polar Form

15.5 Triple Integrals in Rectangular Coordinates

15.6 Applications

15.7 Triple Integrals in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

15.8 Substitutions in Multiple Integrals

16. Integrals and Vector Fields

16.1 Line Integrals of Scalar Functions

16.2 Vector Fields and Line Integrals: Work, Circulation, and Flux

16.3 Path Independence, Conservative Fields, and Potential Functions

16.4 Green’s Theorem in the Plane

16.5 Surfaces and Area

16.6 Surface Integrals

16.7 Stokes’ Theorem

16.8 The Divergence Theorem and a Unified Theory

17. Second-Order Differential Equations (Online at www.goo.gl/MgDXPY)

17.1 Second-Order Linear Equations

17.2 Nonhomogeneous Linear Equations

17.3 Applications

17.4 Euler Equations

17.5 Power-Series Solutions

Appendices

1. Real Numbers and the Real Line

2. Mathematical Induction

3. Lines, Circles, and Parabolas

4. Proofs of Limit Theorems

5. Commonly Occurring Limits

6. Theory of the Real Numbers

7. Complex Numbers

8. The Distributive Law for Vector Cross Products

9. The Mixed Derivative Theorem and the Increment Theorem