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table of contents

The Norton Introduction to Literature, Shorter 13E
Title Page
Copyright
Brief Table of Contents
Contents
Preface for Instructors
Introduction
What Is Literature?
What Does Literature Do?
JOHN KEATS, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer
What Are the Genres of Literature?
Why Read Literature?
Why Study Literature?
HAI-DANG PHAN, My Father’s “Norton Introduction to Literature,” Third Edition (1981)
AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Hai-Dang Phan
JOHN CROWE RANSOM, Bells for John Whiteside’s Daughter
PART ONE. Fiction

  1. Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing
    ANONYMOUS, The Elephant in the Village of the Blind
    Reading and Responding to Fiction
    LINDA BREWER, 20/20
    SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation and Notes on “20/20”
    Reading and Responding to Graphic Fiction
    JULES FEIFFER, Superman
    Writing about Fiction
    RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral
    SAMPLE WRITING: Reading Notes on “Cathedral”
    SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on “Cathedral”
    SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “Cathedral”
    Telling Stories: An Album
    GRACE PALEY, A Conversation with My Father
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Grace Paley
    ANTON CHEKHOV, Gooseberries
    TIM O’BRIEN, The Lives of the Dead
    UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT
  2. Plot
    Plot versus Action, Sequence, and Subplot
    Pace
    Conflicts
    GARY TRUDEAU, Doonesbury
    JACOB AND WILHELM GRIMM, The Shroud
    The Five Parts of Plot
    Common Plot Types
    RALPH ELLISON, King of the Bingo Game
    JAMES BALDWIN, Sonny’s Blues
    JOYCE CAROL OATES, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Joyce Carol Oates
    VIET THANH NGUYEN, I’d Love You to Want Me
    SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “King of the Bingo Game”
    Initiation Stories: An Album
    TONI CADE BAMBARA, The Lesson
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Toni Cade Bambara
    ALICE MUNRO, Boys and Girls
    JOHN UPDIKE, A & P
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: John Updike
  3. Narration and Point of View
    Types of Narration
    Tense
    Narrator versus Implied Author
    EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Cask of Amontillado
    GEORGE SAUNDERS, Puppy
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: George Saunders
    VIRGINIA WOOLF, The Mark on the Wall
    ADAM JOHNSON, Interesting Facts
  4. Character
    Heroes and Villains versus Protagonists and Antagonists
    Major versus Minor Characters
    Flat versus Round and Static versus Dynamic Characters
    Stock Characters and Archetypes
    Reading Character in Fiction and Life
    WILLIAM FAULKNER, Barn Burning
    TONI MORRISON, Recitatif
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Toni Morrison
    DAVID FOSTER WALLACE, Good People
    ALISSA NUTTING, Model’s Assistant
    Monsters: An Album
    MARGARET ATWOOD, Lusus Naturae
    KAREN RUSSELL, St. Lucy’s Home for Girls Raised by Wolves
    JORGE LUIS BORGES, The House of Asterion
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jorge Luis Borges
  5. Setting
    Temporal and Physical, General and Particular Setting
    Functions of Setting
    Vague and Vivid Settings
    ITALO CALVINO, from Invisible Cities
    MARGARET MITCHELL, from Gone with the Wind
    Traditional Expectations of Time and Place
    ALICE RANDALL, from The Wind Done Gone
    JAMES JOYCE, Araby
    AMY TAN, A Pair of Tickets
    JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, Volar
    ANNIE PROULX, Job History
    SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation and Close Reading on “Araby”
    The Future: An Album
    WILLIAM GIBSON, The Gernsback Continuum
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: William Gibson
    RAY BRADBURY, The Veldt
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Ray Bradbury
    OCTAVIA E. BUTLER, Bloodchild
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Octavia E. Butler
    JENNIFER EGAN, Black Box
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jennifer Egan
  6. Symbol and Figurative Language
    Literary Symbolism
    Figures of Speech
    Interpreting Symbolism and Figurative Language
    NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birth-Mark
    A. S. BYATT, The Thing in the Forest
    EDWIDGE DANTICAT, A Wall of Fire Rising
    SAMPLE WRITING: Comparative Essay on “The Birth-Mark” and “The Thing in the Forest”
  7. Theme
    AESOP, The Two Crabs
    Theme(s): Singular or Plural?
    Be Specific: Theme as Idea versus Topic or Subject
    Don’t Be Too Specific: Theme as General Idea
    Theme versus Moral
    STEPHEN CRANE, The Open Boat
    GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children
    YASUNARI KAWABATA, The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket
    JUNOT DÍAZ, Wildwood
    Cross-Cultural Encounters: An Album
    BHARATI MUKHERJEE, The Management of Grief
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Bharati Mukherjee
    JHUMPA LAHIRI, Interpreter of Maladies
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jhumpa Lahiri
    DAVID SEDARIS, Jesus Shaves
    EXPLORING CONTEXTS
  8. The Author’s Work as Context: Flannery O’Connor
    Biographical Approaches to Literature
    Implied Author or Narrator
    Style and Tone
    Three Stories by Flannery O’Connor
    A Good Man Is Hard to Find
    Good Country People
    Everything That Rises Must Converge
    Passages from Flannery O’Connor’s Essays and Letters
    Critical Excerpts
    MARY GORDON, from Flannery’s Kiss
    ANN E. REUMAN, from Revolting Fictions: Flannery O’Connor’s Letter to Her Mother
    EILEEN POLLACK, from Flannery O’Connor and the New Criticism
  9. Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in Turn-of-the-Century America
    Women at the Turn of the Century: An Overview
    Women Writers in a Changing World
    KATE CHOPIN, The Story of an Hour
    CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, The Yellow Wallpaper
    SUSAN GLASPELL, A Jury of Her Peers
    Contextual Excerpts
    CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, from Similar Cases
    from Women and Economics
    BARBARA BOYD, from Heart and Home Talks: Politics and Milk
    MRS. ARTHUR LYTTELTON, from Women and Their Work
    RHETA CHILDE DORR, from What Eight Million Women Want
    The New York Times, from Mrs. Delong Acquitted
    The Washington Post, from The Chances of Divorce
    CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, from Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wall-paper”
    The Washington Post, The Rest Cure
    The Washington Post, from Egotism of the Rest Cure
  10. Critical Contexts: Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried”
    TIM O’BRIEN, The Things They Carried
    Critical Excerpts
    STEVEN KAPLAN, from The Undying Uncertainty of the Narrator in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Car
    LORRIE N. SMITH, from “The Things Men Do”: The Gendered Subtext in Tim O’Brien’s Esquire Sto
    SUSAN FARRELL, from Tim O’Brien and Gender: A Defense of The Things They Carried
    READING MORE FICTION
    LOUISE ERDRICH, Love Medicine
    WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily
    ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Hills Like White Elephants
    FRANZ KAFKA, A Hunger Artist
    JAMAICA KINCAID, Girl
    BOBBIE ANN MASON, Shiloh
    GUY DE MAUPASSANT, The Jewelry
    HERMAN MELVILLE, Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street
    EUDORA WELTY, Why I Live at the P.O
    PART TWO. Poetry
  11. Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing
    Defining Poetry
    LYDIA DAVIS, Head, Heart
    AUTHORS ON THEIR CRAFT: Billy Collins
    Poetic Subgenres and Kinds
    EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Richard Cory
    ROBERT FROST, “Out, Out—”
    THOMAS HARDY, The Ruined Maid
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, I wandered lonely as a cloud
    FRANK O’HARA, Poem [Lana Turner has collapsed!]
    PHILLIS WHEATLEY, On Being Brought from Africa to America
    EMILY DICKINSON, The Sky is low—the Clouds are mean
    BILLY COLLINS, Divorce
    BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN, Nebraska
    ROBERT HAYDEN, A Letter from Phillis Wheatley
    Responding to Poetry
    APHRA BEHN, On Her Loving Two Equally
    Writing about Poetry
    SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on “On Her Loving Two Equally”
    SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “On Her Loving Two Equally”
    The Art of (Reading) Poetry: An Album
    HOWARD NEMEROV, Because You Asked about the Line between Prose and Poetry
    ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, Ars Poetica
    CZESLAW MILOSZ, Ars Poetica?
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Czeslaw Milosz
    ELIZABETH ALEXANDER, Ars Poetica #100: I Believe
    MARIANNE MOORE, Poetry
    JULIA ALVAREZ, “Poetry Makes Nothing Happen”?
    BILLY COLLINS, Introduction to Poetry
    UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT
  12. Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear?
    Narrative Poems and Their Speakers
    ETHERIDGE KNIGHT, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane
    Speakers in the Dramatic Monologue
    A. E. STALLINGS, Hades Welcomes His Bride
    The Lyric and Its Speaker
    MARGARET ATWOOD, Death of a Young Son by Drowning
    AUTHORS ON THEIR CRAFT: Billy Collins and Sharon Olds
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways
    DOROTHY PARKER, A Certain Lady
    Poems for Further Study
    WALT WHITMAN, I celebrate myself, and sing myself
    LANGSTON HUGHES, Ballad of the Landlord
    E. E. CUMMINGS, next to of course god america i
    GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Gwendolyn Brooks
    LUCILLE CLIFTON, cream of wheat
    Exploring Gender: An Album
    RICHARD LOVELACE, Song: To Lucasta, Going to the Wars
    MARY, LADY CHUDLEIGH, To the Ladies
    WILFRED OWEN, Disabled
    ELIZABETH BISHOP, Exchanging Hats
    DAVID WAGONER, My Father’s Garden
    JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, The Changeling
    MARIE HOWE, Practicing
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Marie Howe
    BOB HICOK, O my pa-pa
    TERRANCE HAYES, Mr. T—
    STACEY WAITE, The Kind of Man I Am at the DMV
  13. Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When?
    Situation
    RITA DOVE, Daystar
    DENISE DUHAMEL, Humanity 101
    TRACY K. SMITH, Sci-Fi
    Setting
    MATTHEW ARNOLD, Dover Beach
    One Poem, Multiple Situations and Settings
    LI-YOUNG LEE, Persimmons
    One Situation and Setting, Multiple Poems
    CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
    SIR WALTER RALEIGH, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd
    The Occasional Poem
    MARTÍN ESPADA, Litany at the Tomb of Frederick Douglass
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Martín Espada
    The Carpe Diem Poem
    JOHN DONNE, The Flea
    ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress
    The Aubade
    JOHN DONNE, The Sun Rising
    JAMES RICHARDSON, Late Aubade
    Poems for Further Study
    TERRANCE HAYES, Carp Poem
    NATASHA TRETHEWEY, Pilgrimage
    MAHMOUD DARWISH, Identity Card
    YEHUDA AMICHAI, On Yom Kippur in 1967 . . .
    YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Tu Do Street
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Yusef Komunyakaa
    Homelands: An Album
    MAYA ANGELOU, Africa
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Maya Angelou
    DEREK WALCOTT, A Far Cry from Africa
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Derek Walcott
    JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica
    CATHY SONG, Heaven
    AGHA SHAHID ALI, Postcard from Kashmir
    ADRIENNE SU, Escape from the Old Country
  14. Theme and Tone
    Tone
    W. D. SNODGRASS, Leaving the Motel
    Theme
    MAXINE KUMIN, Woodchucks
    ADRIENNE RICH, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Adrienne Rich
    Theme and Conflict
    ADRIENNE SU, On Writing
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Adrienne Su
    Poems for Further Study
    PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Sympathy
    W. H. AUDEN, Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone
    KAY RYAN, Repulsive Theory
    MAYA ANGELOU, Still I Rise
    SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on Auden’s “Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone”
    Family: An Album
    SIMON J. ORTIZ, My Father’s Song
    ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays
    ELLEN BRYANT VOIGT, My Mother
    MARTÍN ESPADA, Of the Threads That Connect the Stars
    EMILY GROSHOLZ, Eden
    PHILIP LARKIN, This Be the Verse
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Philip Larkin
    JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA, Green Chile
    PAUL MARTÍNEZ POMPA, The Abuelita Poem
    CHARLIE SMITH, The Business
    ANDREW HUDGINS, Begotten
  15. Language: Word Choice and Order
    Precision and Ambiguity
    SARAH CLEGHORN, The golf links lie so near the mill
    MARTHA COLLINS, Lies
    Denotation and Connotation
    WALTER DE LA MARE, Slim Cunning Hands
    THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa’s Waltz
    Word Order and Placement
    SHARON OLDS, Sex without Love
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Sharon Olds
    Poems for Further Study
    WILLIAM BLAKE, London
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Pied Beauty
    WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Red Wheelbarrow
    This Is Just to Say
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: William Carlos Williams
    KAY RYAN, Blandeur
    MARTHA COLLINS, white paper #24
    A. E. STALLINGS, Shoulda, Woulda, Coulda
  16. Visual Imagery and Figures of Speech
    DAVID BOTTOMS, Hubert Blankenship
    CLAUDE MCKAY, The Harlem Dancer
    LYNN POWELL, Kind of Blue
    Simile and Analogy
    TODD BOSS, My Love for You Is So Embarrassingly
    Metaphor
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, That time of year thou mayst in me behold
    LINDA PASTAN, Marks
    Personification
    EMILY DICKINSON, Because I could not stop for Death—
    Metonymy and Synecdoche
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, London, 1802
    TRACY K. SMITH, Ash
    EMMA BOLDEN, House Is an Enigma
    Allusion
    AMIT MAJMUDAR, Dothead
    PATRICIA LOCKWOOD, What Is the Zoo for What
    Poems for Further Study
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
    ANONYMOUS, The Twenty-Third Psalm
    JOHN DONNE, Batter my heart, three-personed God
    RANDALL JARRELL, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
    JOY HARJO, The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window
    JOHN BREHM, Sea of Faith
  17. Symbol
    The Invented Symbol
    JAMES DICKEY, The Leap
    The Traditional Symbol
    EDMUND WALLER, Song
    DOROTHY PARKER, One Perfect Rose
    The Symbolic Poem
    WILLIAM BLAKE, The Sick Rose
    Poems for Further Study
    JOHN KEATS, Ode to a Nightingale
    ROBERT FROST, The Road Not Taken
    HOWARD NEMEROV, The Vacuum
    ADRIENNE RICH, Diving into the Wreck
    ROO BORSON, After a Death
    BRIAN TURNER, Jundee Ameriki
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Brian Turner
    SHARON OLDS, Bruise Ghazal
  18. The Sounds of Poetry
    Rhyme
    Other Sound Devices
    ALEXANDER POPE, from The Rape of the Lock
    Sound Poems
    HELEN CHASIN, The Word Plum
    ALEXANDER POPE, Sound and Sense
    Poetic Meter
    SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Metrical Feet
    ANONYMOUS, There was a young girl from St. Paul
    ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, from The Charge of the Light Brigade
    JANE TAYLOR, The Star
    ANNE BRADSTREET, To My Dear and Loving Husband
    JESSIE POPE, The Call
    WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est
    Poems for Further Study
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, The Windhover
    AMIT MAJMUDAR, Ode to a Drone
    WALT WHITMAN, A Noiseless Patient Spider
    KEVIN YOUNG, Ode to Pork
    Word and Music: An Album
    THOMAS CAMPION, When to Her Lute Corinna Sings
    ANONYMOUS, Sir Patrick Spens
    DUDLEY RANDALL, Ballad of Birmingham
    AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY, A Prayer, Living and Dying
    ROBERT HAYDEN, Homage to the Empress of the Blues
    BOB DYLAN, The Times They Are A-Changin’
    LINDA PASTAN, Listening to Bob Dylan, 2005
    MOS DEF, Hip Hop
    JOSE B. GONZALEZ, Elvis in the Inner City
  19. Internal Structure
    Dividing Poems into “Parts”
    PAT MORA, Sonrisas
    Internal versus External or Formal “Parts”
    GALWAY KINNELL, Blackberry Eating
    Lyrics as Internal Dramas
    SEAMUS HEANEY, Punishment
    SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Frost at Midnight
    SHARON OLDS, The Victims
    Making Arguments about Structure
    Poems without “Parts”
    WALT WHITMAN, I Hear America Singing
    Poems for Further Study
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Th’ expense of spirit in a waste of shame
    PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ode to the West Wind
    PHILIP LARKIN, Church Going
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Philip Larkin
    KATIE FORD, Still-Life
    KEVIN YOUNG, Greening
    SAMPLE WRITING: Essay in Progresson “Church Going”
  20. External Form
    Stanzas
    Traditional Stanza Forms
    ROBERT FROST, Acquainted with the Night
    RICHARD WILBUR, Terza Rima
    Traditional Verse Forms
    Fixed Forms or Form-Based Subgenres
    Traditional Forms: Poems for Further Study
    DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
    NATASHA TRETHEWEY, Myth
    ELIZABETH BISHOP, Sestina
    A. E. STALLINGS, Sestina: Like
    The Way a Poem Looks
    E. E. CUMMINGS, l(a
    Buffalo Bill’s
    Concrete Poetry
    GEORGE HERBERT, Easter Wings
    MAY SWENSON, Women
    The Sonnet: An Album
    FRANCESCO PETRARCH, Upon the breeze she spread her golden hair
    HENRY CONSTABLE, My lady’s presence makes the roses red
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun
    Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
    Let me not to the marriage of true minds
    JOHN MILTON, When I consider how my light is spent
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Nuns Fret Not
    The world is too much with us
    ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, How Do I Love Thee?
    CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, In an Artist’s Studio
    EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why
    Women have loved before as I love now
    I, being born a woman and distressed
    I will put Chaos into fourteen lines
    GWENDOLYN BROOKS, First Fight. Then Fiddle.
    GWEN HARWOOD, In the Park
    JUNE JORDAN, Something Like a Sonnet for Phillis Miracle Wheatley
    BILLY COLLINS, Sonnet
    HARRYETTE MULLEN, Dim Lady
    Haiku: An Album
    Traditional Japanese Haiku
    CHIYOJO, Whether astringent
    BASHŌ, A village without bells—
    This road—
    BUSON, Coolness—
    Listening to the moon
    One Haiku, Four Translations
    LAFCADIO HEARN, Old pond
    CLARA A. WALSH, An old-time pond
    EARL MINER, The still old pond
    ALLEN GINSBERG, The old pond
    Contemporary English-Language Haiku
    EZRA POUND, In a Station of the Metro
    ALLEN GINSBERG, Looking over my shoulder
    RICHARD WRIGHT, In the falling snow
    ETHERIDGE KNIGHT, Eastern guard tower
    The falling snow flakes
    Making jazz swing in
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Etheridge Knight
    MARK JARMAN, Haiku
    SONIA SANCHEZ, from 9 Haiku (for Freedom’s Sisters)
    SUE STANDING, Diamond Haiku
    LINDA PASTAN, In the Har-Poen Tea Garden
    Twaiku
    EXPLORING CONTEXTS
  21. The Author’s Work as Context: Adrienne Rich
    The Poetry of Adrienne Rich
    Poems by Adrienne Rich
    At a Bach Concert
    Storm Warnings
    Living in Sin
    Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Adrienne Rich
    Planetarium
    For the Record
    My mouth hovers across your breasts
    History
    Transparencies
    Tonight No Poetry Will Serve
    Passages from Rich’s Essays
    From When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision
    From A Communal Poetry
    From Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts
    From Poetry and the Forgotten Future
    A Poem for Adrienne Rich
    Joy HARJO, By the Way
    SAMPLE WRITING: Comparative Essay on Sonnets by Shakespeare and Millay
    Emily Dickinson: An Album
    Poems by Emily Dickinson
    Wild Nights—Wild Nights!
    “Hope” is the thing with feathers—
    After great pain, a formal feeling comes—
    I heard a Fly buzz—when I died
    My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—
    I stepped from Plank to Plank
    Tell all the truth but tell it slant—
    Poems about Emily Dickinson
    WENDY COPE, Emily Dickinson
    HART CRANE, To Emily Dickinson
    BILLY COLLINS, Taking Off Emily Dickinson’s Clothes
    W. B. Yeats: An Album
    Poems by W. B. Yeats
    The Lake Isle of Innisfree
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: W. B. Yeats
    All Things Can Tempt Me
    Easter 1916
    The Second Coming
    Leda and the Swan
    Sailing to Byzantium
    A Poem about W. B. Yeats
    W. H. AUDEN, In Memory of W. B. Yeats
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: W. H. Auden
    Pat Mora: An Album
    Elena
    Gentle Communion
    Mothers and Daughters
    La Migra
    Ode to Adobe
  22. The Author’s Work as Context: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience
    Color Insert: Facsimile Pages from Songs of Innocence and of Experience William Blake’s Songs of I
    Songs of Innocence
    Introduction
    The Ecchoing Green
    Holy Thursday
    The Lamb
    The Chimney Sweeper
    Songs of Experience
    Introduction
    The Tyger
    The Garden of Love
    The Chimney Sweeper
    Holy Thursday
  23. Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Harlem Renaissance
    Poems of the Harlem Renaissance
    ARNA BONTEMPS, A Black Man Talks of Reaping
    COUNTEE CULLEN, Yet Do I Marvel
    Saturday’s Child
    From the Dark Tower
    ANGELINA GRIMKÉ, The Black Finger
    Tenebris
    LANGSTON HUGHES, Harlem
    The Weary Blues
    The Negro Speaks of Rivers
    I, Too
    HELENE JOHNSON, Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem
    CLAUDE MCKAY, Harlem Shadows
    If We Must Die
    The Tropics in New York
    America
    The White House
    Contextual Excerpts
    JAMES WELDON JOHNSON, from the preface to The Book of American Negro Poetry
    ALAIN LOCKE, from The New Negro
    RUDOLPH FISHER, from The Caucasian Storms Harlem
    W. E. B. DU BOIS, from Two Novels
    ZORA NEALE HURSTON, How It Feels to Be Colored Me
    LANGSTON HUGHES, from The Big Sea
    SAMPLE WRITING: Research Essay on “I, Too”
  24. Critical Contexts: Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy”
    SYLVIA PLATH, Daddy
    Critical Excerpts
    GEORGE STEINER, from Dying Is an Art
    A. ALVAREZ, from Sylvia Plath
    IRVING HOWE, from The Plath Celebration: A Partial Dissent
    JUDITH KROLL, from Rituals of Exorcism: “Daddy”
    MARY LYNN BROE, from Protean Poetic: The Poetry of Sylvia Plath
    MARGARET HOMANS, from A Feminine Tradition
    PAMELA J. ANNAS, from A Disturbance in Mirrors: The Poetry of Sylvia Plath
    STEVEN GOULD AXELROD, from Sylvia Plath: The Wound and the Cure of Words
    LISA NARBESHUBER, from The Poetics of Torture: The Spectacle of Sylvia Plath’s Poetry
    READING MORE POETRY
    W. H. AUDEN, Musée des Beaux Arts
    ROBERT BROWNING, My Last Duchess
    KELLY CHERRY,, Alzheimer’s
    SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan
    E. E. CUMMINGS, in Just-
    JOHN DONNE, Death, be not proud
    The Good-Morrow
    Song
    A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
    PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, We Wear the Mask
    T. S. ELIOT, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
    ROBERT FROST, Fire and Ice
    Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
    SEAMUS HEANEY, Digging
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur
    Spring and Fall
    BEN JONSON, On My First Son
    JOHN KEATS, Ode on a Grecian Urn
    To Autumn
    YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Facing It
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Yusef Komunyakaa
    LINDA PASTAN, To a Daughter Leaving Home
    MARGE PIERCY, Barbie Doll
    SYLVIA PLATH, Lady Lazarus
    Morning Song
    EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Raven
    EZRA POUND, The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter
    CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, Goblin Market
    WALLACE STEVENS, Anecdote of the Jar
    The Emperor of Ice-Cream
    ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, Ulysses
    WALT WHITMAN, Facing West from California’s Shores
    RICHARD WILBUR, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World
    Biographical Sketches: Poets
    PART THREE. Drama
  25. Drama: Reading, Responding, Writing
    Reading Drama
    Thinking Theatrically
    SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles
    Responding to Drama
    SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation of Trifles
    SAMPLE WRITING: Reading Notes on Trifles
    Writing about Drama
    SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on Trifles
    SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on Trifles
    UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT
  26. Elements of Drama
    Character
    Plot and Structure
    Stages, Sets, and Setting
    Tone, Language, and Symbol
    Theme
    AUGUST WILSON, Fences
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: August Wilson
    QUIARA ALEGRÍA HUDES, Water by the Spoonful
    EXPLORING CONTEXTS
  27. The Author’s Work as Context: William Shakespeare
    The Life of Shakespeare: A Biographical Mystery
    Exploring Shakespeare’s Work: A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Hamlet
    A Midsummer Night’s Dream
    Hamlet
  28. Cultural and Historical Contexts: Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun
    The Historical Significance of A Raisin in the Sun
    The Great Migration
    Life in the “Black Metropolis”
    The Civil Rights Movement
    African Americans and Africa
    The “Americanness” of A Raisin in the Sun
    LORRAINE HANSBERRY, A Raisin in the Sun
    AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Lorraine Hansberry
    Contextual Excerpts
    RICHARD WRIGHT, from Twelve Million Black Voices
    ROBERT GRUENBERG, from Chicago Fiddles While Trumbull Park Burns
    GERTRUDE SAMUELS, from Even More Crucial Than in the South
    WILMA DYKEMAN AND JAMES STOKELY, from New Southerner: The Middle-Class Negro
    MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., from Letter from Birmingham Jail
    ROBERT C. WEAVER, from “The Negro as an American”: The Yearning for Human Dignity
    EARL E. THORPE, from Africa in the Thought of Negro Americans
    PHAON GOLDMAN, from The Significance of African Freedom for the Negro American
    BRUCE NORRIS, from Clybourne Park
  29. Critical Contexts: Sophocles’s Antigone
    Sophocles, Antigone
    Critical Excerpts
    RICHARD C. JEBB, from the introduction to The Antigone of Sophocles
    MAURICE BOWRA, from Sophoclean Tragedy
    BERNARD KNOX, from the introduction to Antigone (1982
    MARTHA C. NUSSBAUM, from Sophocles’ Antigone: Conflict, Vision, and Simplification
    PHILIP HOLT, from Polis and Tragedy in the Antigone
    SAMPLE WRITING: Research Essay on Antigone
    READING MORE DRAMA
    ANTON CHEKHOV, The Cherry Orchard
    HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll House
    JANE MARTIN, from Talking With . . .
    SOPHOCLES, Oedipus the King
    OSCAR WILDE, The Importance of Being Earnest
    TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, A Streetcar Named Desire
    PART FOUR. Writing about Literature
  30. Basic Moves: Paraphrase, Summary, and Description
  31. The Literature Essay
  32. The Writing Process
  33. The Literature Research Essay
  34. Quotation, Citation, and Documentation
  35. Sample Research Essay
    SARAH ROBERTS, “ ‘Only a Girl’? Gendered Initiation in Alice Munro’s ‘Boys and Girls”
    Critical Approaches
    Permissions Acknowledgments
    Index of Authors
    Index of Titles and First Lines
    Glossary/Index of Literary Terms

about the author

Kelly J. Mays has taught writing and literature courses for 25 years — at Stanford University (where she earned her Ph.D.), in the Harvard Expository Writing Program, at New Mexico State University, and (since 2001) at the University of Nevada Las Vegas, where she is now an Associate Professor of English. A British literature specialist whose work has appeared in Victorian Studies, Victorian Poetry, Critical Inquiry, and other major scholarly journals, she is currently at work on a book exploring when and why nineteenth-century Britons began to label their age, their literature, and even themselves “Victorian.”

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