chemical principles 8th edition solutions pdf

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Chemical Principles 8th Edition Solutions Pdf, uniquely blends conceptual understanding with a rigorous development of the fundamental concepts of chemistry and applies them to our modern world. Chemical Principles 8th Edition Solutions Pdf places much more emphasis on real applications of principles learned in each chapter than any previous edition.

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This fully updated Eighth Edition of CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES provides a unique organization and a rigorous but understandable introduction to chemistry that emphasizes conceptual understanding and the importance of models. Known for helping students develop a qualitative, conceptual foundation that gets them thinking like chemists, this market-leading text is designed for students with solid mathematical preparation. The Eighth Edition features a new section on “”Solving a Complex Problem”” that discusses and illustrates how to solve problems in a flexible, creative way based on understanding the fundamental ideas of chemistry and asking and answering key questions. The book is also enhanced by an increase of problem solving techniques in the solutions to the Examples, new student learning aids, new “Chemical Insights” and “Chemistry Explorers” boxes, and more.

Chemical Principles 8th edition | 9781305856745, 9781305856745 | VitalSourceontents

TABLE OF CONTENTS for chemical principles 8th edition solutions pdf

Learning to Think like a Chemist

About the Authors

Ch 1: Chemists and Chemistry

1.1: Thinking Like a Chemist

1.2: A Real-World Chemistry Problem

1.3: The Scientific Method

1.4: Industrial Chemistry

1.5: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry

Key Terms

For Review

Ch 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1: The Early History of Chemistry

2.2: Fundamental Chemical Laws

2.3: Dalton’s Atomic Theory

2.4: Cannizzaro’s Interpretation

2.5: Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom

2.6: The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction

2.7: Molecules and Ions

2.8: An Introduction to the Periodic Table

2.9: Naming Simple Compounds

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 3: Stoichiometry

3.1: Atomic Masses

3.2: The Mole

3.3: Molar Mass

3.4: Conceptual Problem Solving

3.5: Percent Composition of Compounds

3.6: Determining the Formula of a Compound

3.7: Chemical Equations

3.8: Balancing Chemical Equations

3.9: Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products

3.10: Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant

3.11: Solving a Complex Problem

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

4.1: Water, the Common Solvent

4.2: The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes

4.3: The Composition of Solutions

4.4: Types of Chemical Reactions

4.5: Precipitation Reactions

4.6: Describing Reactions in Solution

4.7: Selective Precipitation

4.8: Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions

4.9: Acid-Base Reactions

4.10: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

4.11: Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

4.12: Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 5: Gases

5.1: Early Experiments

5.2: The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro

5.3: The Ideal Gas Law

5.4: Gas Stoichiometry

5.5: Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

5.6: The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

5.7: Effusion and Diffusion

5.8: Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls

5.9: Intermolecular Collisions

5.10: Real Gases

5.11: Characteristics of Several Real Gases

5.12: Chemistry in the Atmosphere

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 6: Chemical Equilibrium

6.1: The Equilibrium Condition

6.2: The Equilibrium Constant

6.3: Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

6.4: The Concept of Activity

6.5: Heterogeneous Equilibria

6.6: Applications of the Equilibrium Constant

6.7: Solving Equilibrium Problems

6.8: Le Chatelier’s Principle

6.9: Equilibria Involving Real Gases

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 7: Acids and Bases

7.1: The Nature of Acids and Bases

7.2: Acid Strength

7.3: The pH Scale

7.4: Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions

7.5: Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions

7.6: Bases

7.7: Polyprotic Acids

7.8: Acid-Base Properties of Salts

7.9: Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration

7.10: Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration

7.11: Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 8: Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

8.1: Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion

8.2: Buffered Solutions

8.3: Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions

8.4: Buffer Capacity

8.5: Titrations and pH Curves

8.6: Acid-Base Indicators

8.7: Titration of Polyprotic Acids

8.8: Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product

8.9: Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis

8.10: Complex Ion Equilibria

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 9: Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry

9.1: The Nature of Energy

9.2: Enthalpy

9.3: Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases

9.4: Calorimetry

9.5: Hess’s Law

9.6: Standard Enthalpies of Formation

9.7: Present Sources of Energy

9.8: New Energy Sources

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 10: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

10.1: Spontaneous Processes

10.2: The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas

10.3: The Definition of Entropy

10.4: Entropy and Physical Changes

10.5: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

10.6: The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity

10.7: Free Energy

10.8: Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

10.9: Free Energy and Chemical Reactions

10.10: The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure

10.11: Free Energy and Equilibrium

10.12: Free Energy and Work

10.13: Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary

10.14: Adiabatic Processes

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 11: Electrochemistry

11.1: Galvanic Cells

11.2: Standard Reduction Potentials

11.3: Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy

11.4: Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration

11.5: Batteries

11.6: Corrosion

11.7: Electrolysis

11.8: Commercial Electrolytic Processes

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problems

Ch 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory

12.1: Electromagnetic Radiation

12.2: The Nature of Matter

12.3: The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen

12.4: The Bohr Model

12.5: The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom

12.6: The Particle in a Box

12.7: The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom

12.8: The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function

12.9: The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals

12.10: Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle

12.11: Polyelectronic Atoms

12.12: The History of the Periodic Table

12.13: The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table

12.14: Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model

12.15: Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

12.16: The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Ch 13: Bonding: General Concepts

13.1: Types of Chemical Bonds

13.2: Electronegativity

13.3: Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments

13.4: Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes

13.5: Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds

13.6: Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds

13.7: The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model

13.8: Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions

13.9: The Localized Electron Bonding Model

13.10: Lewis Structures

13.11: Resonance

13.12: Exceptions to the Octet Rule

13.13: Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 14: Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

14.1: Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model

14.2: The Molecular Orbital Model

14.3: Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

14.4: Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

14.5: Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models

14.6: Orbitals: Human Inventions

14.7: Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction

14.8: Electronic Spectroscopy

14.9: Vibrational Spectroscopy

14.10: Rotational Spectroscopy

14.11: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 15: Chemical Kinetics

15.1: Reaction Rates

15.2: Rate Laws: An Introduction

15.3: Determining the Form of the Rate Law

15.4: The Integrated Rate Law

15.5: Rate Laws: A Summary

15.6: Reaction Mechanisms

15.7: The Steady-State Approximation

15.8: A Model for Chemical Kinetics

15.9: Catalysis

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 16: Liquids and Solids

16.1: Intermolecular Forces

16.2: The Liquid State

16.3: An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids

16.4: Structure and Bonding in Metals

16.5: Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids

16.6: Molecular Solids

16.7: Ionic Solids

16.8: Structures of Actual Ionic Solids

16.9: Lattice Defects

16.10: Vapor Pressure and Changes of State

16.11: Phase Diagrams

16.12: Nanotechnology

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Marathon Problem

Ch 17: Properties of Solutions

17.1: Solution Composition

17.2: The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation

17.3: Factors Affecting Solubility

17.4: The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

17.5: Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

17.6: Osmotic Pressure

17.7: Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

17.8: Colloids

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Ch 18: The Representative Elements

18.1: A Survey of the Representative Elements

18.2: The Group 1A Metals

18.3: The Chemistry of Hydrogen

18.4: The Group 2A Elements

18.5: The Group 3A Elements

18.6: The Group 4A Elements

18.7: The Group 5A Elements

18.8: The Chemistry of Nitrogen

18.9: The Chemistry of Phosphorus

18.10: The Group 6A Elements

18.11: The Chemistry of Oxygen

18.12: The Chemistry of Sulfur

18.13: The Group 7A Elements

18.14: The Group 8A Elements

Key Terms

For Review

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Ch 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

19.1: The Transition Metals: A Survey

19.2: The First-Row Transition Metals

19.3: Coordination Compounds

19.4: Isomerism

19.5: Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model

19.6: The Crystal Field Model

19.7: The Molecular Orbital Model

19.8: The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes

Key Terms

For Review

Discussion Questions

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Ch 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist’s View

20.1: Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay

20.2: The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

20.3: Nuclear Transformations

20.4: Detection and Uses of Radioactivity

20.5: Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus

20.6: Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

20.7: Effects of Radiation

Key Terms

For Review

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Ch 21: Organic and Biochemical Molecules

21.1: Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons

21.2: Alkenes and Alkynes

21.3: Aromatic Hydrocarbons

21.4: Hydrocarbon Derivatives

21.5: Polymers

21.6: Natural Polymers

Key Terms

For Review

Exercises

Additional Exercises

Challenge Problems

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Mathematical Procedures

Appendix 2: Units of Measurement and Conversions among Units

Appendix 3: Spectral Analysis

Appendix 4: Selected Thermodynamic Data

Appendix 5: Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials

Appendix 6: Deriving the Integrated Rate Laws

Glossary

Answers to Selected ExIndex

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